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Usage[edit source | hide | hide all]

This template generates an abbreviation for circa: c. By default the abbreviation is marked with <abbr>.

Examples[edit source | hide]

Syntax What it looks like Notes
{{Circa}} 1325 c. 1325 Default style; line break allowed between "c." and "1325"; normal-width space
{{Circa|1325}} c. 1325 Default style: no line break allowed; thin space
{{Circa|1325|i=yes}} c. 1325 With italic "c.", though italics are discouraged at MOS:CIRCA
{{Circa|1325|lk=abbr}} c. 1325 With abbreviation marking only (default)
{{Circa|1325|lk=yes}} c. 1325 With link only
{{Circa|1325|lk=no}} c. 1325 With neither link nor abbreviation marking
{{Circa|1350|cap=yes}} c. 1350 Starting with capital letter
{{Circa|1000|1050}} c. 1000 – c. 1050 For ranges

Parameters[edit source | hide]

Using the date itself as parameter (for example, "{{Circa|1956}}", giving "c. 1956"), web browsers do not insert a line break anywhere in the string. By contrast, "{{Circa}} 1956" allows a line break between the "c." and the number. Also, with the date as a parameter a thinner space is used with many browsers:

  • "c. 1956" is generated by "{{Circa|1956}}".
  • "c. 1956" is generated by "{{Circa}} 1956".

If the parameter |i= is set to a non-empty value, the "c." is put in italics: for example, "{{Circa|i=''}}" generates "c." instead of "c.".

If the parameter |lk= (for "link") is set as "|lk=no" or "|lk=off", the abbreviation is rendered as "c.", without a wikilink or abbreviation element. If it is set to "|lk=abbr", it is rendered with the abbreviation element but without the wikilink. If it is set to "|lk=yes" or "|lk=on", it is rendered as "c.", with a wikilink to the Circa article and not an abbreviation element. Otherwise, the abbreviation is marked with the "<abbr>" element, as in "c.", and linked to the Circa article. The lk parameter can be used to avoid overuse of "<abbr>" or overlinking when this template is used repeatedly in the body of an article. For example:

  • [[Dionysius Exiguus]] was born {{Circa|470}}, lived in Rome from {{Circa|lk=no|500}}, and died {{Circa|lk=no|544}}.
    Dionysius Exiguus was born c. 470, lived in Rome from c. 500, and died c. 544.

If the parameter "cap=yes" is specified, the result starts with a capital letter.

If the parameter "sortable=yes" is specified, the template generates invisible text that will cause the output to work in sortable tables, at the cost of causing problems for visually-impaired readers. Compare "Col 1" and "Col 2" in the following table:

Title Col 1 Col 2
Foo 1066 1066
Bar c. 1510 1510 c. 1510
Baz 1956 1956
Jaz c. 410 0410 c. 410

"Col 1" uses {{Circa}} 1510, and does not sort correctly. "Col 2" uses {{Circa|1510|sortable=yes}}, and does sort correctly. This works because {{Circa|1510|sortable=yes}} inserts an invisible span element at the start of the cell: <span style="display:none;">1510</span>. Although it is not rendered, it is still seen by the sorting code and makes sorting work.

The downside of this approach is that the invisible text is still rendered by screen readers that are used by visually impaired readers, and by text browsers such as Lynx, so the table will become garbled for readers who are using assistive technology or text browsers.

See also[edit source | hide]

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