ADRON-RM

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ADRON-RM
Operator European Space Agency
Manufacturer Russian Space Research Institute
Instrument type neutron spectrometer
Function hydrogen and H2O detector
Mission duration ≥ 7 months[1]
Website www.iki.rssi.ru/eng/exomars2018.htm
Properties
Mass 1.7 kg
Host Spacecraft
Spacecraft ExoMars rover
Operator ESA/Roscosmos
Launch date July 2020[2]
Rocket Proton
COSPAR ID {{#property:P247}}

ADRON-RM (Autonomous Detector of Radiation of Neutrons Onboard Rover at Mars) is a neutron spectrometer to search for subsurface water ice and hydrated minerals.[3][4][5] This analyser is part of the science payload on board the European Space Agency's ExoMars rover,[6] tasked to search for biosignatures and biomarkers on Mars. The rover is planned to be launched in July 2020 and land on Mars in March 2021.

ADRON-RM is a near copy of ADRO-EM on the stationary ExoMars 2020 surface platform and the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) neutron detector on board NASA's Curiosity rover, all designed by Igor Mitrofanov from the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI).

Overview[edit | hide all | hide | edit source]

ADRON-RM is a neutron spectrometer that will search for hydrogen in the form of bound water or water ice, and hydrogen-bearing compounds. It will be used in combination with WISDOM instrument (a ground-penetrating radar) to study the subsurface beneath the rover and to search for optimal sites for drilling and sample collection.[7] It can also detect trace elements such as Gd and major elements that constitute soil, such as Cl, Fe, Ti.[7] It will also monitor the neutron component of the radiation background on Mars' surface.

Development[edit | hide | edit source]

ADRON-RM Performance/units[7]
Mass 1.7 kg
Power consumption 5 W
Dimensions ≈ 4 × 20 × 21 cm
Energy range for CETN[lower-alpha 1] 0.4 eV - 1 keV
Energy range for CTN[lower-alpha 2] ≤ 1 keV
Detectors Two 3He proportional counters
Accumulation period 20 sec (changeable)
  1. counter of epithermal neutrons
  2. counter of thermal neutrons

The Principal Investigator is Igor Mitrofanov from the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI).[3] The instrument is almost a reproduction of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) neutron detector on board NASA's Curiosity rover also developed in Russia.[8][9] Mitrofanov is also developing the active gamma and neutron spectrometer, ADRON-EM (Active Detection of Radiation of Nuclei-ExoMars) for the stationary ExoMars 2020 surface platform —the primary goal of which will be to measure water distribution in the Martian subsurface.[7] Measurements by ADRON-RM and ADRON-EM will work in synergy with other ExoMars instruments.

ADRON-RM uses two 3He proportional counters with a cylindrical shape of about 25  mm in diameter and 55  mm in total length. Each counter is filled with 3He gas under 4 atmospheres of pressure.[7] Each neutron detector will measure two 32-channel spectra. The data will be obtained as routine and passive measurements, which will not be saved but will be immediately transmitted from the instrument to the rover computer. This means that all ADRON-RM measurements will be performed only when the 'Rover Compute Element' is active (daytime).[7]

ADRON-RM is installed inside the ExoMars rover body at the rear balcony. The height above the surface is 0.8 m (2.6 ft)

Objectives[edit | hide | edit source]

The stated objectives of the ADRON-RM scientific investigation include:[7]

  • Measurement of the distribution of bulk hydrogen content in the form of free or bound water.
  • Evaluation of the bulk composition of major soil neutron absorption elements (Cl, Fe, Ti S, etc.)
  • Monitoring of the neutron component of the natural radiation background and estimation of neutron radiation dose at the Martian surface from Galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events.
  • The potential to monitor seasonal changes of the neutron environment due to variations of atmospheric and subsurface properties.

References[edit | hide | edit source]

  1. Vago, Jorge L.; et al. (July 2017). "Habitability on Early Mars and the Search for Biosignatures with the ExoMars Rover". Astrobiology. 17 (6-7): 471–510. Bibcode:2017AsBio..17..471V. doi:10.1089/ast.2016.1533. 
  2. "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). European Space Agency. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "ExoMars 2018 mission". Институт Космических Исследований Space Research Institute. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  4. "The ExoMars Project". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  5. Mitrofanov, I. G.; et al. (July 2017). "The ADRON-RM Instrument Onboard the ExoMars Rover". Astrobiology. 17 (6-7): 585–594. Bibcode:2017AsBio..17..585M. doi:10.1089/ast.2016.1566. 
  6. ExoMars: Searching for Life on Mars. Elizabeth Howell, Space.com. March 15, 2017.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 The ADRON-RM Instrument Onboard the ExoMars Rover. I.G. Mitrofanov, M.L. Litvak, Y. Nikiforov, I. Jun, Y.I. Bobrovnitsky, D.V. Golovin, A.S. Grebennikov, F.S. Fedosov, A.S. Kozyrev, D.I. Lisov, A.V. Malakhov, M.I. Mokrousov, A.B. Sanin, V.N. Shvetsov, G.N. Timoshenko, T.M. Tomilina, V.I. Tret'yakov, and A.A. Vostrukhin. Astrobiology, Vol. 17, No. 6-7. 1 July 2017. doi:10.1089/ast.2016.1566
  8. "Mars Science Laboratory: Mission". NASA/JPL. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  9. Webster, Guy (April 8, 2013). "Remaining Martian Atmosphere Still Dynamic". NASA. Retrieved April 9, 2013. 

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