Image depicting the three spacecraft of the mission, an orbiter at left, lander at center, and rover at right, against a Martian landscape and sky.|
Artist's illustration of ExoMars' Trace Gas Orbiter (left), Schiaparelli lander (middle), and rover (right)
|Mission type||Mars reconnaissance|
|Operator||ESA · RFSA|
|Mission duration||Elapsed: 3 years, 7 months and 3 days|
ExoMars ESA mission insignia
ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) is a two-part astrobiology project to search for evidence of life on Mars, a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roscosmos. The first part, launched in 2016, placed a trace gas research and communication satellite into Mars orbit and released a stationary experimental lander (which crashed). The second part is planned to launch in 2020, and to land the ExoMars rover on the surface, supporting a science mission that is expected to last into 2022 or beyond.
ExoMars goals are to search for signs of past life on Mars, investigate how the Martian water and geochemical environment varies, investigate atmospheric trace gases and their sources and by doing so demonstrate the technologies for a future Mars sample return mission. The mission will search for ancient biosignatures of Martian life, employing several spacecraft elements to be sent to Mars on two launches.
The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and a test stationary lander called Schiaparelli were launched on 14 March 2016. TGO entered Mars orbit on 19 October 2016 and will proceed to map the sources of methane (CH
4) and other trace gases present in the Martian atmosphere that could be evidence for possible biological or geological activity. The TGO features four instruments and will also act as a communications relay satellite. The Schiaparelli experimental lander separated from TGO on 16 October and was maneuvered to land in Meridiani Planum, but it crashed on the surface of Mars. The landing was designed to test new key technologies to safely deliver the 2020 rover mission.
In 2020, a Roscosmos-built lander (ExoMars 2020 surface platform) is to deliver the ESA-built ExoMars Rover to the Martian surface. The rover will also include some Roscosmos built instruments. The second mission operations and communications will be led by ALTEC's Rover Control Centre in Italy.
- 1 History
- 2 Mission objectives
- 3 Mission profile
- 4 Landing site selection
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
History[edit | hide all | hide | edit source]
Since its inception, ExoMars has gone through several phases of planning with various proposals for landers, orbiters, launch vehicles, and international cooperation planning, such as the defunct 2009 Mars Exploration Joint Initiative (MEJI) with the United States. Originally, the ExoMars concept consisted of a large robotic rover being part of ESA's Aurora Programme as a Flagship mission and was approved by the European Space Agency ministers in December 2005. Originally conceived as a rover with a stationary ground station, ExoMars was planned to launch in 2011 aboard a Russian Soyuz Fregat rocket.
ExoMars was begun in 2001 as part of the ESA Aurora program for the human exploration of Mars. That initial vision called for rover in 2009 and later a sample return mission. Another mission intended to support the Aurora program is a Phobos sample return mission. In December 2005, the different nations composing the ESA gave approval to the Aurora program and to ExoMars. Aurora is an optional program and each state is allowed to decide which part of the program they want to be involved in and to what extent (e.g. how much funds they want to put into the program). The Aurora program was initiated in 2002 with support of twelve nations: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Canada
In 2007, Canadian-based technology firm MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) was selected for a one-million-euro contract with EADS Astrium of Britain to design and build a prototype Mars rover chassis for the European Space Agency. Astrium was also contracted to design the final rover.
On July 2009 NASA and ESA signed the Mars Exploration Joint Initiative, which proposed to utilise an Atlas rocket launcher instead of a Soyuz, which significantly altered the technical and financial setting of the ExoMars mission. On 19 June, when the rover was still planned to piggyback the Mars Trace Gas Orbiter, it was reported that a prospective agreement would require that ExoMars lose enough weight to fit aboard the Atlas launch vehicle with a NASA orbiter.
Then the mission was combined with other projects to a multi-spacecraft mission divided over two Atlas V-launches: the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) was merged into the project, piggybacking a stationary meteorological lander slated for launch in January 2016. It was also proposed to include a second rover, the MAX-C.
In August 2009 it was announced that the Russian Federal Space Agency (now Roscosmos) and ESA had signed a contract that included cooperation on two Mars exploration projects: Russia's Fobos-Grunt project and ESA's ExoMars. Specifically, ESA secured a Russian Proton rocket as a "backup launcher" for the ExoMars rover, which would include Russian-made parts.
On 17 December 2009, the ESA governments gave their final approval to a two-part Mars exploration mission to be conducted with NASA, confirming their commitment to spend €850 million ($1.23 billion) on missions in 2016 and 2018.
In April 2011, because of a budgeting crisis, a proposal was announced to cancel the accompanying MAX-C rover, and fly only one rover in 2018 that would be larger than either of the vehicles in the paired concept. One suggestion was that the new vehicle would be built in Europe and carry a mix of European and U.S. instruments. NASA would provide the rocket to deliver it to Mars and provide the sky crane landing system. Despite the proposed reorganisation, the goals of the 2018 mission opportunity would have stayed broadly the same.
Under the FY2013 Budget President Obama released on 13 February 2012, NASA terminated its participation in ExoMars due to budgetary cuts in order to pay for the cost overruns of the James Webb Space Telescope. With NASA's funding for this project completely cancelled, most of these plans had to be restructured.
On 14 March 2013, representatives of the ESA and the Russian space agency (Roscosmos), signed a deal in which Russia became a full partner. Roscosmos will supply both missions with Proton launch vehicles with Briz-M upper stages and launch services, as well as an additional entry, descent and landing module for the rover mission in 2018. Under the agreement, Roscosmos was granted three asking conditions:
- Roscosmos will contribute two Proton launch vehicles as payment for the partnership.
- The Trace Gas Orbiter payload shall include two Russian instruments that were originally developed for Fobos-Grunt.
- All scientific results must be intellectual property of the European Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences (i.e. Roscosmos will have full access to research data).
ESA had originally cost-capped the ExoMars projects at €1 billion, (USD 1.3 billion) but the withdrawal of the U.S. space agency (NASA) and the consequent reorganisation of the ventures will probably add several hundred million euros to the sum so far raised. So on March 2012, member states instructed the agency's executive to look at how this shortfall could be made up. One possibility is that other science activities within ESA may have to step back to make ExoMars a priority. On September 2012 it was announced that new ESA members, Poland and Romania will be contributing up to €70 million to the ExoMars mission. ESA has not ruled out a possible partial return of NASA to the 2018 portion of ExoMars, albeit in a relatively minor role.
Russia's financing of ExoMars could be partially covered by insurance payments of 1.2 billion rubles ($40.7 million USD) for the loss of Fobos-Grunt, and reassigning funds for a possible coordination between the Mars-NET and ExoMars projects. On 25 January 2013, Roscosmos fully funded the development of the scientific instruments to be flown on the first launch, the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO).
As of March 2014, the lead builder of the ExoMars rover, the British division of Airbus Defence and Space, had started procuring critical components, but the 2018 rover mission was still short by more than 100 million euros, or $138 million. The wheels and suspension system are paid by the Canadian Space Agency and are being manufactured by MDA Corporation in Canada.
Status[edit | hide | edit source]
In January 2016 it was announced that the financial situation of the 2018 mission 'might' require a 2-year delay. Italy is the largest contributor to ExoMars, and the UK is the mission's second-largest financial backer.
The rover was scheduled to launch in 2018 and land on Mars in early 2019, but in May 2016 ESA announced that the launch would occur in 2020 due to delays in European and Russian industrial activities and deliveries of the scientific payload.
2016 first spacecraft launch[edit | hide | edit source]
The spacecraft containing ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and Schiaparelli launched on 14 March 2016 (Livestream began at 08:30 GMT [03:30 AM EDT]). Four rocket burns occurred in the following 10 hours before the descent module and orbiter were released. Signal from the Orbiter was successfully received at 21:29 GMT of the same day, which confirmed that the launch was fully successful and the spacecraft is on its way to Mars. Shortly after separation from the probes, the Briz-M upper booster stage possibly exploded a few kilometers away, however apparently without damaging the orbiter or lander. The spacecraft, which housed the Trace Gas Orbiter and the Schiaparelli lander, took its nominal orbit towards Mars and was seemingly in working order. Over the next two weeks, controllers continued to check and commission its systems, including the power, communications, startrackers, and guidance and navigation system.
Mission objectives[edit | hide | edit source]
- to search for possible biosignatures of past Martian life.
- to characterise the water and geochemical distribution as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface.
- to study the surface environment and identify hazards to future manned missions to Mars.
- to investigate the planet's subsurface and deep interior to better understand the evolution and habitability of Mars.
- achieve incremental steps ultimately culminating in a sample return flight.
The technological objectives to develop are:
Mission profile[edit | hide | edit source]
ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roscosmos. According to current plans, the ExoMars project will comprise four spacecraft: two stationary landers, one orbiter and one rover. All mission elements will be sent in two launches using two heavy-lift Proton rockets.
|Contributing agency||First launch in 2016||Second launch in 2020|
|Proton rocket||Proton rocket|
|Two instrument packages for the TGO||Russian-built landing system and surface science platform will deliver the rover to the surface. Russia will provide various scientific instruments for the lander and rover.|
|ESA||ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter||ExoMars rover, and various scientific instruments on the rover|
|Schiaparelli EDM lander|
The two landing modules and the rover will be sterilised in order not to contaminate the planet with Earth life forms. Cleaning will require a combination of sterilising methods, including ionising radiation, UV radiation, and chemicals such as ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. (see Planetary protection).
Trace Gas Orbiter[edit | hide | edit source]
The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is a Mars telecommunications orbiter and atmospheric gas analyzer mission that was launched on 14 March 2016. The spacecraft arrived in the Martian orbit in October 2016. It delivered the ExoMars Schiaparelli EDM lander and then proceed to map the sources of methane on Mars and other gases, and in doing so, help select the landing site for the ExoMars rover to be launched in 2020. The presence of methane in Mars' atmosphere is intriguing because its likely origin is either present-day life or geological activity. Upon the arrival of the rover in 2021, the orbiter would be transferred into a lower orbit where it would be able to perform analytical science activities as well as provide the Schiaparelli EDM lander and ExoMars rover with telecommunication relay. NASA provided an Electra telecommunications relay and navigation instrument to ensure communications between probes and rovers on the surface of Mars and controllers on Earth. The TGO would continue serving as a telecommunication relay satellite for future landed missions until 2022.
Schiaparelli EDM lander[edit | hide | edit source]
The Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) called Schiaparelli, was intended to provide the European Space Agency (ESA) and Russia's Roscosmos with the technology for landing on the surface of Mars. It was launched together with the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) on 14 March 2016 and was scheduled to land softly on 19 October 2016. No signal indicating a successful landing was received, and on 21 October 2016 NASA released a Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter image showing what appears to be the lander crash site. The lander was equipped with a non-rechargeable electric battery with enough power for four sols. The soft landing should have taken place on Meridiani Planum during the dust storm season, which would have provided a unique chance to characterise a dust-loaded atmosphere during entry and descent, and to conduct surface measurements associated with a dust-rich environment.
Once on the surface, it was to measure the wind speed and direction, humidity, pressure and surface temperature, and determine the transparency of the atmosphere. It carried a surface payload, based on the proposed meteorological DREAMS (Dust Characterisation, Risk Assessment, and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface) package, consists of a suite of sensors to measure the wind speed and direction (MetWind), humidity (MetHumi), pressure (MetBaro), surface temperature (MarsTem), the transparency of the atmosphere (Optical Depth Sensor; ODS), and atmospheric electrification (Atmospheric Radiation and Electricity Sensor; MicroARES). The DREAMS payload was to function for 2 or 3 days as an environmental station for the duration of the EDM surface mission after landing.
Russian landing system[edit | hide | edit source]
The second mission, scheduled for launch in July 2020, will have an 1800 kg Russian-built landing platform system derived from the 2016 Schiaparelli EDM lander, to place the ExoMars rover on the surface of Mars. This lander platform will be built 80% by the Russian company Lavochkin, and 20% by ESA. Lavochkin will produce most of the landing system's hardware, while ESA will handle elements such as the guidance, radar and navigation systems. Lavochkin's current landing strategy is to use two parachutes; one will open while the module is still moving at supersonic speed, and another will deploy once the probe has been slowed down to subsonic velocity. The heat shield will eventually fall away from the entry capsule to allow the ExoMars rover, riding its retro-rocket-equipped lander, to come for a soft landing on legs or struts. The surface platform lander will then deploy ramps for the rover to drive down.
Surface platform[edit | hide | edit source]
After landing on Mars in 2021, the rover will descend from the platform via a ramp. The platform is expected to image the landing site, monitor the climate, investigate the atmosphere, analyse the radiation environment, study the distribution of any subsurface water at the landing site, and perform geophysical investigations of the internal structure of Mars. Following a March 2015 request for the contribution of scientific instruments for the landing system, there will be four instruments; the two European-led instruments selected are:
- the Lander Radioscience experiment (LaRa) will study the internal structure of Mars, and will make precise measurements of the rotation and orientation of the planet by monitoring two-way Doppler frequency shifts between the surface platform and Earth. It will also detect variations in angular momentum due to the redistribution of masses, such as the migration of ice from the polar caps to the atmosphere.
- the HABIT (HabitAbility: Brine, Irradiation and Temperature) package will investigate the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere, daily and seasonal variations in ground and air temperatures, and the UV radiation environment.
- two Russian-led instruments will monitor pressure and humidity, UV radiation and dust, the local magnetic field and plasma environment.
Rover[edit | hide | edit source]
Instrumentation will consist of the exobiology laboratory suite, known as "Pasteur analytical laboratory" to look for signs of biomolecules and biosignatures from past life. Among other instruments, the rover will also carry a 2-metre (6.6 ft) sub-surface core drill to pull up samples for its on-board laboratory. The rover will have a mass of about 207 kg (456 lb).
The ExoMar's rover includes the Pasteur instrument suite, including the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA), MicrOmega-IR, and the Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS). Examples of external instruments on the rover incude:
Landing site selection[edit | hide | edit source]
A primary goal when selecting the rover's landing site is to identify a particular geologic environment, or set of environments, that would support —now or in the past— microbial life. The scientists prefer a landing site with both morphologic and mineralogical evidence for past water. Furthermore, a site with spectra indicating multiple hydrated minerals such as clay minerals is preferred, but it will come down to a balance between engineering constraints and scientific goals.
Engineering constraints call for a flat landing site in a latitude band straddling the equator that is only 30° latitude from top to bottom because the rover is solar-powered and will need best sunlight exposure. The landing module carrying the rover will have a landing ellipse that measures about 105 km by 15 km. Scientific requirements include landing in an area with 3.6 billion years old sedimentary rocks that are a record of the past wet habitable environment. The year before launch, the European Space Agency will make the final decision. By March 2014, the long list was:
Following additional review by an ESA-appointed panel, four sites, all of which are located relatively near the equator, were formally recommended in October 2014 for further detailed analysis:
The delay of the rover mission to 2020 from 2018 meant that Oxia Planum was no longer the only favourable landing site due to changes in the possible landing ellipse. Both Mawrth Vallis and Aram Dorsum, surviving candidates from the previous selection, could be reconsidered. ESA convened further workshops to re-evaluate the three remaining options and in March 2017 selected two sites to study in detail;
The final selection is scheduled to occur approximately a year before launch.
See also[edit | hide | edit source]
References[edit | hide | edit source]
- Chang, Kenneth (19 October 2016). "ExoMars Mission to Join Crowd of Spacecraft at Mars". New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "ExoMars: ESA and Roscosmos set for Mars missions". European Space Agency (ESA). 14 March 2013.
- Amos, Jonathan (18 June 2013). "Europe". BBC News.
- Chang, Kenneth (12 September 2016). "Visions of Life on Mars in Earth's Depths". New York Times. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Habitability on Early Mars and the Search for Biosignatures with the ExoMars Rover. Astrobiology journal. Volume 17, Numbers 6 and 7, 2017 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2016.1533
- "The ExoMars Programme 2016-2018". European Space Agency (ESA). 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
- Chang, Kenneth (14 March 2016). "Mars Mission Blasts Off From Kazakhstan". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Chang, Kenneth (21 October 2016). "Dark Spot in Mars Photo Is Probably Wreckage of European Spacecraft". New York Times. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- Katz, Gregory (27 March 2014). "2018 mission: Mars rover prototype unveiled in UK". Excite News. AP News.
- "N° 11–2016: Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). ESA. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Amos, Jonathan (15 March 2012). "Europe still keen on Mars missions". BBC News.
- de Selding, Peter B. (15 March 2012). "ESA Ruling Council OKs ExoMars Funding". Space News.
- "ALTEC's role in ExoMars". ALTEC website. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "ExoMars". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
Harwood, William (13 February 2012). "NASA budget boosts manned space, cuts Mars exploration". C Net News.
"Tough choices had to be made," Bolden said. "This means we will not be moving forward with the planned 2016 and 2018 ExoMars mission that we had been exploring with the European Space Agency.
- Whewell, Megan (15 February 2012). "Have Europe's Martian exploration plans been derailed by America?". National Space Centre. MSN News.
- "Europe's ExoMars rover..." Space Today Online. 28 August 2005.
- European ministers approve the Aurora Exploration Programme and give green light for the ExoMars mission, ESA, 12 December 2005
- "B.C. robotics firm lands Martian contract". CanWest News Service. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007.
- "NASA Could Take Role in European ExoMars Mission". Space News. 19 June 2009.
- Taverna, Michael A. (19 October 2009). "ESA Proposes Two ExoMars Missions". Aviation Week.
- Amos, Jonathan (12 October 2009). "Europe's Mars plans move forward". BBC News.
- "Agreement between ESA and Roscosmos signed at "MAKS 2009"". WAPA. Avio News. 20 August 2009.
- "ESA, Roscosmos Strike Mars Deal". Red Orbit. 20 August 2009.
- de Selding, Peter B. (18 December 2009). "ESA Approves Collaborative Mars Program with NASA". Space News.
- Amos, Jonathan (7 April 2011). "US and Europe mull single 2018 Mars rover". BBC News.
- Morring, Jr., Frank (14 February 2012). "NASA Units Hope For Robotic Mars Mission in 2018". Aviation Week.
- Kremer, Ken (1 February 2012). "Experts React to Obama Slash to NASA's Mars and Planetary Science Exploration". Universe Today.
- Wall, Mike (22 August 2012). "When Exploring Other Planets, International Cooperation Is Key". Nature. Space.com.
- "Russian-European spacecraft to go on Martian mission in Jan 2016". Staff. The Voice of Russia. 10 February 2014.
- Podorvanyuk, Nikolai (30 March 2012). "Insurance from "Phobos-Grunt" to fly to Mars". Gazeta (in Russian).
- "Russia's participation in the "ExoMars" does not cancel the plans for the "Phobos-Grunt-2"". RIA Novosti. 20 March 2012.
- "Russia, Europe Sign Mars Probe Project Deal". RIA Novosti. 14 March 2013.
- de Selding, Peter B. (31 May 2012). "ESA Eyeing Hodgepodge of Funding Sources To Save ExoMars Mission". Space News.
- "ExoMars Wins One-month Reprieve". Space News. 16 May 2012.
- de Selding, Peter B. (19 September 2012). "Poland Tripling Space Spending in Bid To Boost Economy". Space News.
- Morring, Jr., Frank (8 March 2012). "Appropriators Blocking Mars Mission Move". Aviation Week.
"The Mars-NET project". Retrieved 18 April 2012.
Possible coordination between Mars-NET and European ExoMars project.
- Kramnik, Ilya (18 April 2012). "Russia takes a two-pronged approach to space exploration". Russia & India Report.
- Staff (25 January 2013). "Roskosmos funds creation of instruments for ExoMars mission". The Voice of Russia.
- Clark, Stephen (3 March 2014). "Facing funding gap, ExoMars rover is on schedule for now". Spaceflight Now.
- "Money Troubles May Delay Europe-Russia Mars Mission". Agence France-Presse. Industry Week. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Proton launches Euro-Russian ExoMars mission, but program's second launch remains in limbo". Spacenews.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- "Russia and Europe Team Up for Mars Missions". Space.com. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Staff (10 March 2016). "Watch ExoMars Launch (March 14, 2016, 08:30 GMT)". European Space Agency. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Staff (14 March 2016). "Live Video - ExoMars Launch (March 14, 2016, 08:30 GMT)". Livestream. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- "ExoMars on its way to solve the Red Planet's mysteries". ESA. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- King, Bob (24 March 2016). "ExoMars Mission Narrowly Avoids Exploding Booster". Universe Today. Retrieved 2016-03-25.
- Thomson, Iain (26 March 2016). "ExoMars probe narrowly avoids death, still in peril after rocket snafu". The Register. Retrieved 2016-03-26.
- "Scientific objectives - ExoMars". European Space Agency (ESA). 1 November 2007.
- Svitak, Amy (16 March 2012). "Europe Joins Russia on Robotic ExoMars". Aviation Week.
- "Packing for Mars". Pys Org. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Russian, EU Space Agencies Propose to Delay Joint Mission to Mars". Sputnik News. Moskow. 18 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Clark, Stephen (20 September 2015). "Launch of European Mars mission delayed two months". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- de Selding, Peter B. (26 September 2012). "U.S., Europe Won't Go It Alone in Mars Exploration". Space News.
- Allen, Mark; Witasse, Olivier (16 June 2011), "2016 ESA/NASA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter" (PDF), MEPAG June 2011 (PDF), Jet Propulsion Laboratory
- Patterson, Sean (8 November 2013). "ESA Names ExoMars Lander 'Schiaparelli'". Space Fellowship.
- "Schiaparelli: the ExoMars Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module". ESA. 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Chan, Sewell (20 October 2016). "No Signal From Mars Lander, but European Officials Declare Mission a Success". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "Entry, Descent and Surface Science for 2016 Mars Mission". Science Daily. 10 June 2010.
- F. Esposito, et al., DREAMS for the ExoMars 2016 mission: a suite of sensors for the characterisation of Martian environment" (PDF). European Planetary Science Congress 2013, EPSC Abstracts Vol. 8, EPSC2013-815 (2013)
- "EDM surface payload". European Space Agency (ESA). 19 December 2011.
- Vago, J; et al. (August 2013). "ExoMars, ESA's next step in Mars exploration" (PDF). ESA Bulletin magazine (155). pp. 12–23.
- Amos, Jonthan (21 June 2013). "Looking forward to Europe's 'seven minutes of terror'". BBC News.
- "NASA drops ExoMars missions in 2013 budget". Optics. 15 February 2012.
- Pickup, Alan (16 March 2012). "Uncertainties for ExoMars". Spacewatch. Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012.
- "European payload selected for ExoMars 2018 surface platform". European Space Agency (ESA). 27 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "Announcement of Opportunity for European payload elements on the Surface Platform of the ExoMars 2018 mission". European Space Agency (ESA). 31 March 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Amos, Jonathan (5 September 2011). "Smart UK navigation system for Mars rover". BBC News.
- "Mars rover Bruno goes it alone". EADS Astrium. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- ExoMars Project Team (3–4 March 2009). "ExoMars Status" (PDF). 20th MEPAG Meeting (PDF). European Space Agency.
- "The ExoMars Instruments". European Space Agency. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "Press Info: ExoMars Status" (Press release). Thales Group. 8 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- "Rover surface operations". European Space Agency. 18 December 2012.
- Kish, Adrienne (31 August 2009). "Amase-ing Life on the Ice". Astrobiology Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 September 2009.
- Grindrod, Peter (26 March 2014). "Searching for life on Mars: where should the ExoMars rover land?". The Guardian.
- Amos, Jonathan (27 March 2014). "Europe begins Mars site selection". BBC News.
- "Call for ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection". ESA. 17 December 2013.
- "Four Candidate Landing Sites for ExoMars 2018". ESA. Space Ref. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Recommendation for the Narrowing of ExoMars 2018 Landing Sites". ESA. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Amos, Jonathan (21 October 2015). "ExoMars rover: Landing preference is for Oxia Planum". BBC News. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Atkinson, Nancy (21 October 2015). "Scientists Want ExoMars Rover to Land at Oxia Planum". Universe Today. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Final two ExoMars landing sites chosen". European Space Agency. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
External links[edit | hide | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to ExoMars.|
- Official website
- ExoMars RFSA site
- ESA main web site
- Raman-LIBS spectrometer for ExoMars Combined Raman-LIBS spectrometer for ExoMars
- The ExoMars project at RussianSpaceWeb.com
- Arrival at Mars (NYT; 16 October 2016)
- Animated video of ExoMars
|This article uses material from ExoMars on Wikipedia (view authors). License under CC BY-SA 3.0.|